extinct (adj)

Exist / extinct

The noun and verb froms of “extinct” are obsolete, no longer in common use, or, in a word, extinct.


Forms:  Also ME extincte.

Etymology: < Latin ex(s)tinctus, past participle of ex(s)tinguĕre : see extinguish v. As used by Caxton and writers of the 16th cent. it may be regarded as past participle of extinct v.

 1. Extinguished (see senses of extinct n.extinguish v.). Now rare.

?a1475  (?a1425)    tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Harl. 2261) (1865) I. 347   This duke Turgesius was perischede and extincte.
?a1475  (?a1425)    tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Harl. 2261) (1865) I. 219   That fyre was extincte.
1483   Caxton tr. J. de Voragine Golden Legende 176/4   The more they lyght them [candellys] the more were they extyncte.
1549   Bk. Common Prayer (STC 16267) Priuate Baptisme f. viii*   Graunt that al sinne & vice here maie bee so extinct.
1598   S. RowlandsBetraying of Christ 30   They blind his sight, whose soules more blind Had quite extinct the light of grace.
a1613   E. BrerewoodEnq. Langs. & Relig. (1614) iv. 33   The Spanish and Pannonian tongues not extinct by the Romans.
1631   R. ByfieldDoctr. Sabbath Vindicated 99   It tooke fire..but was quickly extinct.
1734   E. LawEnquiry 26   Take away the Things and their respective Order and Distance..may cease and be extinct.
1887   Pall Mall Gaz. 30 Dec. 13/2   As I uttered the last word of my manuscript, the lights were suddenly extinct.

 II. As adjective. (In early use with distinctly participial sense; in modern use it usually denotes a state without reference to the action from which this results.)


 a. Of a fire, flame, light: Extinguished, quenched, put out; no longer burning.   extinct volcano n. a volcano that has ceased eruption; also fig.spec. a person who has lost the considerable energy, etc., he once possessed.
?a1475  (?a1425)    tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Harl. 2261) (1865) I. 119   A lawnterne..extincte is drownede in to hit.
a1530   W. BondePylgrimage of Perfeccyon (1531) iii. f. Clxxxxviiv   The lampe of grace in thy soule wyll soone be extinct.
1652   J. GauleΠυς-μαντια 355   Neither the husband nor any of the family could be awaked till that Torch was extinct.
1785   W. CowperTaskvi. 684   A spark or two not yet extinct.
1834   T. MedwinAngler in Wales I. 249   There are some who..when we [cigars] are not half extinct throw us contemptuously away.
1843   Penny Cycl. XXVI. 427/2   Active or extinct volcanoes.
1865   H. C. RobinsonDiary 21 Jan. (1967) 314   Allsop, whose name has been long forgotten… An extinct volcano.
1865   J. A. SymondsLet. 20 Aug. (1967) I. 566   My illusions & conceits are Extinct volcanoes.
1878   T. H. HuxleyPhysiogr. (ed. 2) 193   A group of small extinct volcanoes.
1914   F. M. FordLet. Jan. (1965) 59   Your list of extinct and semi-extinct volcanoes..is..only window dressing.

 3. Of things comparable to a fire or light (e.g. life, hope, passion, disease, etc.): Quenched; that has ceased to burn or shine.

a1513   R. FabyanNew Cronycles Eng. & Fraunce (1516) I. cxviii. f. lvi   The feythe..was well nere extyncte thoroughe all the Lande.
1591   Troublesome Raigne Iohni. sig. G3v   Yong Arthurs eyes are blinded and extinct.
1777   J. PriestleyDisquis. Matter & Spirit iv. 36   Every faculty of the mind..is liable..to become wholly extinct before death.
1827   B. DisraeliVivian Grey III. v. xii. 236   Conversation seemed nearly extinct.
1828   ScottFair Maid of Perth i, in Chron. Canongate 2nd Ser. III. 19   He was cut down..before life was extinct.
1857   H. T. BuckleHist. Civilisation Eng. I. vi. 294   The last hope of the Mohammedans was extinct.

4. Of a person: Cut off; dead; blotted out of existence. Also, passed away, vanished. Obsolete.

1483   Caxton tr. J. de Voragine Golden Legende 5/2   All were..deed and extynct.
?1544   J. HeywoodFoure PP sig. D.iii   He may at lybertie Passe saue..Tyll that he be from vs extyncte.
1611   Bible (King JamesJob xvii. 1   My dayes are extinct .
1655   H. L’EstrangeReign King Charles 4   The usuall ceremony ordained to the bodies of extinct princes.
1665   G. Havers tr. P. della Valle Trav. E. India 93   Nagar..lost together with his life a great part of his Dominions, and became in a manner extinct.
1675   H. Neville tr. Machiavelli Prince xi, in tr. Machiavelli Wks. 214   The Pope being dead, and Valentine extinct.

 5. That has died out or come to an end.

 a. Of a family, a class of persons, a race or species of animals or plants: Having no living representative; ‘without progressive succession’ (Johnson).

1683   Britanniæ Speculum 156   The Line of Henry VIIIth..being extinct.
1719   D. DefoeLife Robinson Crusoe 331   My Father was dead, and my Mother, and all the Family extinct.
1748   JenynsImit. Hor. Epist.ii. i. 48   Let’s try and fix some æra, if we can, When good ones [ministers] were extinct, and bad began.
1868   E. A. FreemanHist. Norman Conquest (1876) II. ix. 434   The royal house..was not yet extinct.
1875   A. HelpsSocial Pressure iii. 35   The great book collectors (except in America) seem to be an extinct race.

 b. Of an institution, dignity, office, etc.: Obsolete. Of a title of nobility: Having no qualified claimant.

1581   J. Bell tr. W. Haddon & J. Foxe Against Jerome Osorius 51   Ye Supper of the Lord..you have so defiled..that the true use thereof is almost utterly extinct.
1651   T. Hobbes Leviathan ii. xxix. 174   The Assembly it selfe is extinct.
1818   W. Cruise Digest Laws Eng. Real Prop. (ed. 2) III. 244   The dignities limited to the heirs male of Sir Robert Sydney became extinct.
1836   J. Gilbert Christian Atonem. iv. 142   They imagine the office of moral rule in another state to become extinct.
1841   W. Spalding Italy & Ital. Islands III. 181   The three extinct republics, Florence, Pisa, and Siena.
1849   Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 537   His marquisate became extinct.

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